Anatomy of the temporomandibular joint – TMJ

Anatomy of the temporomandibular joint - TMJ
The temporomandibular joint plays an important role in the processes of mastication, phonation and mandibular movement. It is a complex region from an anatomical and physiological point of view. The joint consists of the condylar process of the mandible, the articular fossa, belonging to the base of the skull, the articular disc, the capsule surrounding the joint, and the temporomandibular ligament. Superiorly, the TMJ is related to the base of the skull, posteriorly to the bony and cartilaginous parts of the external auditory meatus, inferiorly with a venous plexus, arteries and nerves, and externally with the skin, from which it is separated by adipose tissue through which branches of the facial nerve and the transverse facial artery run. In the classification of joints, the TMJ is a bicondylar diarthrosis (3)(6)(7).

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